SOME ASPECTS OF MIGRATIONS OF THE JEWS OF UKRAINE
Unfortunately, the statistics of migrations of the Jews of Ukraine has
obtained the exact figure basement only for the last years. Therefore,
we've had to define all previous migrations waves using different indirect
or more common factors, in particular, using extrapolation of figures
relating to migrations of the Jews of the USSR. But even these figures
don't give the full impression about the processes interesting us, because
the statistics of this category of migrants to the USA has been made only
from 1965, to Germany - from 1993, to other countries - this kind of statistics
doesn't exist at all.
Additional factors which make our task more difficult is that both the
migrations of the Jews of Ukraine to the Eastern regions of the USSR in
the 50-80ies and the arrival of the Jews to Ukraine from these regions
between 1987 and 1992 are very little investigated.
The mentioned problems along with other ones prevent us from the definition
even approximately the present number of the "extended population"
of the Jews of Ukraine because the different figures wave between 150
and 750 thousands.
Doing the extrapolation of the emigration quantity indexes from the USSR
to Ukraine we'll use the factor 1/3.
of XIX around 4 millions the Jews lived in Russian Empire. Statistics
of the emigration following the wave of pogroms in the period before the
First World War started, naturally, doesn't separates the regions of the
exodus in the modern borders, but it's known that approximately every
third Jew of Russia lived in the South-Western Region and Novorossia (the
territory between Caucasus and Donetsk region), every forth one - in the
In the end of 19th beginning of 20th century the number of the Jewish
population of the Eastern Ukraine kept growing: in 1897 it was 1 870 thousands
(41.3% of the Jewish population of the Russian Empire, 9.4% of all population
1. Emigration of the Jews from the Russian Empire and "Ukraine"
(extrapolation) in 1881 - 1914
of the emigrants (thousands persons)
of all the Jews emigrants (%)
of the emigrants (thousands persons)
The table1 shows:
- the every third Jew of the "Ukraine" left it in this period;
- almost 80% of the Jewish emigrants vent to the USA;
- in spite of the high national and religious motivation of that time
only around 2% of the Jewish emigrants from the Russian Empire, and correspondently,
the "Ukraine", vent to the Erez-Israel.
Alijah (1882 - 1903) numbered around 25 thousands people and consisted
of the persons and the small groups, which left for the Palestine mainly
under the influence of the first Zionist organizations of the Russian
The poverty and the fear before new pogroms induced to emigrate the tens
thousands of the Jews from the Eastern Ukraine. In the beginning of the
90ies of XIX the emigration of the Jews from the Eastern Ukraine became
mass: daily 300 - 400 people left the territory of the Russian Empire,
directed mainly to the USA, but also to UK, Argentine, Canada and other
The Second Alijah (1904 - 1914) - around 40 thousands people - consisted
mainly of the inhabitants from the Eastern Europe and the Russian Empire,
who at first were the hireling workers in agriculture cooperatives and
in cities. The First World War interrupted this Alijah.
From the beginning of XX century the annual emigration from the Russian
Empire began exceed the natality of the Jewish population. It meant that
the maximal number of the Jews in the Empire was around in 1905 - 5.5
millions and then steadily decreased.
According to the Israeli sources the "Jewish emigration" from
the USSR to Palestine for the period from 1919 till 14.05.1948 made up
at 52 350 people, therefore the "contribution of Ukraine" in
that emigration wave was around 17-20 thousands.
It's interesting that on the elections of the deputies to the All-Russian
Jewish Convention that took place in the end of January 1918 the Zionists
got 2/3 of the votes (in Ukraine 54.5%). Therefore, the majority of the
Jews of that time supported the Zionism conception, which due to miseries
and pogroms of the Civil War resulted the considerable emigration and
the repatriation to the Palestine.
In the end of 1918 the members of the Russian "He-Haluz" started
the Third Alijah, where the newcomers from the Russian Empire formed 44.5%
(around 20 thousands people); the majority of the others came from the
regions that had been the parts of the Russian Empire before (Poland,
Bessarabia (Moldova) and oth.).
In spite of the rout of the main Zionist organizations in the end of the
20ies , the Alijah from the USSR went on till 1936 (in 1925-26 - 8157
people, in 1927-36 - 3145 people).
In the 1920ies and especially in the 1930ies more than 100 thousands Jews
from the Eastern Galicia and Western Volyn' (the Rivne and Luts'k regions,
the Western Ukraine) repatriated to the Palestine or emigrated to the
USA, Canada, Argentina, Australia and others countries.
The number of the Jewish population of the Bukovina (the Chernovtsy region)
decreased from 128 thousands in 1924 to 93 thousands in 1930, of the Bessarabia
(Moldova) - from 238 thousands to 207 thousands.
About 10 thousands Jews of the Transcarpatian (the Mukachevo region) repatriated
in 1918-1938 to the Erez-Israel.
interesting stage of emigration and repatriation that concern Ukraine
most of all is the time between the deliverance by the Soviet Army from
the German occupation the territory of Ukraine and the restoration of
the western post-war border. A lot of the inhabitants of the Western Ukraine
survived in the Holocaust remembering the short but active soviet period
in 1939-1941 chose the repatriation to the Palestine and got it via Romania,
Hungary, and Poland in spite of many difficulties.
From the 10th of October 1944 till the 15th of September 1946 30 408 Jews
crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border; the majority of them intended to
use the opportunity existing in that period of time to leave legally Poland
for the Erez-Israel, the USA or the Western Europe countries.
In Chernovtsy region 17 461 Jews received the permission to cross the
border with Romania before the 1st of May 1946.
From 1944 the "Briha" emissaries worked in the Western regions
of the USSR; they helped thousands Jews to leave the USSR and get the
Erez-Israel. In the 1st half of 1946 this operation was blocked by the
KGB, its members were arrested and sentenced to different years' imprisonments.
The uncertainty concerning the country of exodus gives some confusion
in the statistics of this period because the borders of the countries
were changing actively during that time.
the State Israel was created the streams of repatriants from the whole
world flooded there. Nevertheless because of the specific situation in
the USSR aggravated with the "fighting with cosmopolitism",
the "soviet" part of the repatriation of this time was scanty
in spite of the large number of the Jews inspired with the creation of
the State and desiring to take part in its defense and work. Only 8 163
Jews repatriated to Israel from the USSR (from Ukraine - 2.5 - 3 thousands)
between 15.05.1948 and 1951 according to the Israeli Statistics.
After the Knesset passed the "Low about Return" the new repatriation
era started, though the things almost didn't change. Nevertheless, in
spite of the "lock on the border" 13 743 Jews came to Israel
from the USSR (4-5 thousands - from Ukraine) between 1952 and 1960.
The ruling of Khrushchev gave new hopes for repatriation to the Ukrainian
By the autumn of 1956 the number of the applications for the departure
for Israel was doubled: in 1951 the officials received only one such application,
in 1955 - 315, in the first 9 months of 1956 - 1260. The first Jews-"rejected"
appeared in Ukraine: from 774 applications regarded in 1956 the officials
rejected 616 .
One of the main repatriation directions of this period became the "Polish
channel". After the agreement signed between Nikita Khrushchev and
Vladislav Gomulka in 1956 the past citizens of Poland having stayed due
to different reasons after the Second World War on the territory of the
USSR could repatriate legally to Poland. The considerable part of this
group was the past Polish Jews (10 %). Some of them stayed in Poland afterwards
but the rest followed further including Israel. Not only past Polish citizens
used this "channel" but also the considerable groups of the
Jews from the Baltic Republics and the other parts of the USSR. The total
number of the Jews having repatriated via the "Polish channel"
is around 20 thousands from 250 thousands past Polish citizens who came
to Poland from the USSR in 1956 - 1959. As in the previous years it's
difficult today to determine which state was noticed as the country of
the exodus: Poland or the USSR.
In spite of a lot of rejects for the permissions to repatriate the Jews
of Ukraine went on their efforts in the beginning of the 60ies. The religious
families in the Western Ukraine, the Baltic, the Georgia were especially
persistent. For the period 1961 - 1969 from the USSR to Israel 6646 Jews
(2-3 thousands - from Ukraine) repatriated.
For the next period 1965 - 1969 10 899 people from the USSR (3.5-4 thousands
- from Ukraine) went to Israel.
made by the English journalist Emanuel Litvinov in the middle of the 70ies,
give us more full and correct picture of emigration from the USSR to Israel
from 1968 till 1976.
After the Israel's victory in the 6-days War the Jews of the USSR seeing
the end of reforms began mass applying to the governments asking to leave
for Israel under the pretexts of reunion of families. Applying the documents
for leaving and the next actions to organize the departure were followed
with numerous problems and humiliations. Very often they left the future
emigrants without job, they excluded them from the Universities and the
Arts Unions and, therefore, the future emigrants stayed without main livelihood
one - one and a half year before departure. The problems increased much
more in case of refuse. In the beginning of the 80ies 40 thousands Jews-"refused"
were in the USSR.
of the visas for leaving for Israel in the USSR republics (1968-1976)
- see in the attachment 4-1.
Table 2. The delivery of the
visas for leaving for Israel in the USSR republics (1968-1976 yy.)
table 4-1 shows the features of the Jewish emigration from the USSR in
the 70ies. Three groups of the republics attract the attention: the first
one from where the emigration percent was the biggest and considerably
exceeded (2 - 8 times) the portion of the Jewish population of these republics
in the USSR (Moldova, Lithuania, Latvia, Georgia); the second group, where
the emigration percent was approximately correspondent to the portion
of the Jews (Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Estonia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Armenia);
and the third one is the one where the emigration percent was much less
(2 - 10 times) than the portion of the Jewish population (Russia, Belarus,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenia). On our opinion, such difference is
explained with the trivial reasons: the time of the Soviet Power in the
republic, the national and the local politics towards the emigration of
the Jews in the republic, the availability of the information about Israel,
the religiousness of the Jewish population, the cumulative moral the "emigration
The following table gives us the picture about the real departure from
the USSR to Israel and the other countries in the 70ies, because, firstly,
not all the ones who got permission for emigration have emigrated in fact,
secondly, due to the different reasons the ratio of emigrants and repatriants
during the 70ies was considerably changed.
3. The Jewish emigration and repatriation from the USSR (1968 - 1976)
of the "noshrim"
the Yom-Kippur War (October 1973) hard though victorious for Israel that
caused the distinctly decreasing of the level of emigration and repatriation
in 1973 - 1974. In this table we can see how and when the emigrants from
the USSR "found out" the opportunity following via Vena to leave
Europe for the USA (mainly) and the other countries and not to arrive
at Israel. Israeli terminology called such emigrants "noshrim"
or "neshira". This occurrence become considerable by 1973 and
gradually got the way of the snow avalanche. By 1976 the number of repatriants
and "noshrim" become equal.
The portion of the "noshrim" in the total emigration from the
city (1968 - 1976):
Odessa - 93.6%
Kharkov - 86.0%
Kiev - 80.0 %
L'vov - 72.5% Moscow - 71.3%
Leningrad (Sankt-Petersburg) - 69.7%
Kishinev - 15.5%
Chernovtsy - 8.9%
following emigrants in the period of the preparation for departure, the
big number of the "Refused", the Yom-Kippur War resulted the
fact that the big part of the Jews of the Jews even having got the invitation
from Israel decided not to apply documents for arrival. Only half of the
320 thousands got invitations were used during those years.
The distinctly decreasing of the repatriation level after 1973 shows that
the opinion about the high "national motivation" of emigration
of the 70ies was overstated.
Nevertheless, we have to notice that after the distinctly decreasing of
the total level of emigration and repatriation over the USSR due to the
Yom-Kippur War the proportions between the republics had been changed
in favour of the Jews of Ukraine. The portion of Ukraine in the total
emigration was 23% in 1968 - 1972, 39% in 1975 and 46% in 1976. On our
opinion it can be explained by the factors that the almost all those who
composed the "first turn" of the emigration potential left the
very "active" but few-populated republics by the middle of the
70ies. In Ukraine it could be related with Bukovina (Chernovtsy) and Transcarpatia
(Mukachevo). But by the middle of the 70ies the less "nationally
motivated" Jews from the big cities (high number of the Jews) like
Moscow and Leningrad, Kiev, Kharkov and Odessa, began to join emigration.
This resulted not only big contribution of these cities in emigration
but also in "neshira".
4. Departure from cities (1968 - 1976)
The analysis of the data in the table 4 shows that 71% (94 thousands)
of all the Jews and the members of their families, who emigrated after
the 6-days War from the USSR, came from 20 cities (mainly the capitals
of the republics). In come cases it was considerable part of the all Jewish
population of these cities (Vilnius, Kaunas, Chernovtsy, Samarkand, Riga).
Chernovtsy "lost" one third of all the Jews during this period
5. Jewish emigration and repatriation from the USSR and Ukraine (1968
about Ukraine are got by the method of extrapolation and, therefore, are
The government of the USSR decided to cancel the Jewish emigration by
the end of the 70ies, and for this reason before "closing" emigration
that had been planned by the Olympic Games in Moscow they tried to "move
out" from the USSR the bigger part of the emigration potential that
had been accumulated for the previous years (1979 - 46408 people, two
times more than in 1978). Together with the emigration active a lot of
dissidents pressed by the Soviet officials left using the Israeli invitations,
because for them the only alternative for departure was jail.
Due to the almost unlimited potential the Soviet Power nearly stopped
emigration but they didn't stop the stream of applications to the OVIR
(the Soviet visa Department). It was mentioned before that in the beginning
of the 80ies as the result of the described processes the number of the
"Refused" increased distinctly and reached 40 thousands people.
Only part of the "Refused" of the 70ies was released, the rest
had to wait for the start of the "Perestroika".
6. Jewish emigration and repatriation from the USSR and Ukraine in the
of the table 6 and the additional information give us the following results:
- in the 80ies the portion of the "noshrim" is two times more
than in the 70ies;
- in this period the Jews of Ukraine "dropped out" of repatriation
in the same measure as the Jews of the USSR in whole;
- the decreasing of the portion of the "noshrim" in the emigration
of 1987 could be explained, obviously, with the fact that in this time
the large emigration started and, therefore, the "Refused" of
the 70ies were the first ones released from the USSR;
- the maximal "neshira" was in December 1988 when only 4% of
the all Jewish emigrants from the USSR came to Israel.
In 1968 - 1988 more than 100 thousands Jews of Ukraine and their families
members emigrated (mainly to Israel, and also to the USA, Canada, Australia,
Germany and other countries) that was 12-13% of the whole number.
that processes which were started in the USSR in the second half of the
80ies had big influence on the emigration of the Jews. Moreover, the emigration
potential accumulated for the previous "refusing" period, the
social-economical crises following the "Perestroika" and the
collapse of the USSR, the distrust of the most of the population for current
processes and perspectives - all the noticed causes resulted the huge
migration streams in the end of the 80ies and the beginning of the 90ies.
Besides the Jews the other ethnic groups joined the movement.
7. The biggest ethnic groups of emigrants left Ukraine in 1991 - 1999
say that for the Jews and their families' members the 90ies is the period
of the quasi-free emigration because there have not been any limitations
for emigration of the Jews from the government's site in Ukraine. Emigration
was influenced only by the powerful social-economical and political factors
inside of Ukraine and directions of emigration has been regulated by the
politics of the receiving countries.
In the end of the 80ies and beginning of the 90ies the group of factors
such as the distinct increasing of the emigration, the direct flights
to Israel, the initiatives of the Israeli government resulted the distinct
decreasing of the "neshira" and, consequently the increasing
Regarding the emigration level the 90ies are comparable with the correspondent
period of the end of XIX - beginning of XX centuries, but nowadays the
opposite occurrences happen also in the range of the ethnic groups. Therefore,
the absolute figures don't give the correct picture about the character
and the relative migration activity. Let's try the concept "migration
balance" as the disparity between immigration and emigration.
8. The characters of the migration balance in the different ethnic groups
Table 9. The emigration
dynamics factors (the ratio of the number of emigrants to the number of
the correspondent ethnic group in 1989) of some ethnic groups in Ukraine
for 1991 - 1999
surveys of the Jewish population of Ukraine concerning their opinions
on the possible emigration have been made some times for the 90ies. Particularly
the investigations of the Jewish Scientific Center (JSC - Moscow) were
made twice with 5 years break, that shows us the dynamics of changing
the attitude of the Jews of Ukraine for the different aspects of emigration.
11. The intentions of the Jews of Ukraine concerning the possible emigration
table shows that for the last 5 years (1993 - 1998) the portion of the
Jewish population of Ukraine desiring to emigrate has decreased in 1.3
times (from 51% to 38.8%) and correspondently in the same measure the
portion of the ones desiring to stay has decreased (from 47.7% to 59.3%).
Taking in account the total decreasing of the number of the Jewish population
this fact means that the absolute number of the Jews desiring not to emigrate
stays the approximately the same.
On our opinion decreasing of the pos. 5, 6 is explained with simplifying
and shortening in time of the regarding documents procedure and of preparations
for leaving, and also decreasing the total "emigration potential",
i.e. the number of the Jewish population.
Positions 5 and 6 describe those who fulfill their intentions in the nearest
year for it's mentioned not about intentions but about making documents
and preparations for leaving.
12. Reasons of emigration of the Jews of Ukraine
Analysis of this table shows the following facts:
· for the past 5 years economical motivation (pos.1+pos.3)
of emigration increased from 51.8% to 58.5%, remaining high percent of
those who doesn't believe in the possibility of improving life in Ukraine;
· national motivation (pos.4+pos.5) of emigration decreased from
31% to 20.7%. It could be explained that the more "motivated"
ones left in the first years of the big emigration (middle of the 80ies);
· Anti-Semitism as the emigration reason moved from the 2nd place
in 1993 to 4th in 1998, that shows rather the baselessness of the fears
among the Jews in the first years of independence than the objective characteristic
of the Anti-Semitism factor;
· stable low percent of those who wants to live in the national
· distinctly (more than 1.5 times) increasing of the pos.3 shows
that the portion of those who want to have "civilized" living
has grown for the past 5 years.
Table 13. Directions of
desired emigration of the Jews of Ukraine
Three countries - Israel, the USA and Germany remain the main directions
of leaving. The stable high level of those who want to go to Israel but
the radical changes have happened among those who want to go to the USA
for according to the existing rules the arrival is allowed only for the
"Jews-refugees" who have close relatives in the USA. Those who
don't have relatives partly chose Germany as the emigration country where
the arrival for the Jews has been simplified for the 90ies. The rest formed
the "difficult to say" group.
From November 1995 till February 1996 the Israeli Sociologist Nadya Zinger
asked by the "Sochnut" made the investigation "Tendencies
of the repatriation from Russia and Ukraine". Below you can see the
main results of the investigation.
28% of the interrogated ones in Russia and 38% in Ukraine informed about
their intention to emigrate from the CIS.
The main motives for decision to emigrate from Ukraine are: the fear of
economical instability (36%), unbelieving in the possibility of changing
current situation (31%), desire to improve the future of children (26%),
the ecological situation (15%).
The main motives for decision not to emigrate: strong tie with the original
country (44%), age reasons (21%), good job (20%), fear of decreasing his
status on job and in society (20%).
30% of the total number of those who want to emigrate from Ukraine (11%
of the total number of interrogated) would like to repatriate to Israel,
41% - to the USA and Canada, 13% - to Germany.
31% of the interrogated ones have close relatives in Israel.
14. Emigration from Ukraine to the countries outside the CIS (different
that to the USA and Germany the less assimilated Jewish families go than
to Israel shows only the difference in conditions of Jewish emigration
to these countries. So, for example, arrival to Germany is allowed only
for the "Refugees" who have at least one Jewish parent, to enter
to the USA it's necessary to have direct relatives what also decreases
the portion of the assimilated Jews in emigration while the Israeli low
allows to enter to Israel even for the "Jews" in third generation.
Also from the table 2-1 we can see that though the portion of the Jews
of Ukraine in the past USSR (33.6%) their portion in repatriation to Israel
waves with big amplitude from 19.4% in 1993 to 44.1% in 1997 what had
been resulted on our opinion by the group of factors: not the same economical
and political development of the countries of the past USSR, not equal
start conditions of emigration, different level of being informed, different
accumulated by the beginning of the 90ies the "emigration potential".
So, from the range of the countries of Caucasus and the Central Asia left
bigger portions of the Jewish population than from the Slavic and Baltic
countries. In total, the portion of emigrants from Ukraine to Israel approximately
correspondents the portion of the Jewish population of Ukraine in the
USSR in 1989 and is 31.7%.
of the Jews to Ukraine for the permanent living is quite rare occurrence
but let us investigate this also.
15 Jewish and German immigration to Ukraine with allocation according
to nationalities (1994 - 1999
table 15 we can see the data of official immigration but on our opinion
the real immigration has been 2-3 times more.
More than 40% of immigrants from the developed countries in the regarded
context are the re-emigrants from Israel what were resulted first of all
by the family problems (divorces), unsuccessful absorption or by the desire
to live and have business in the big (though not prosperous) "market"
As result immigration from the developed countries is 5-6% of emigration
from Ukraine to these countries.
It's very difficult to value immigration to Ukraine due to the limit of
the correspondent statistics. Particularly, on our opinion, in the end
of the 80ies - beginning of the 90ies the flow of the "Jewish emigrants"
from Russia is much more than extrapolated figures in the table 15.
Let's look at the following chart (picture 1). The lower line of the chart
characterize changes in the emigration speed of the "kernel of the
Jewish population", the upper line - of the "enlarged population".
We can see clearly how by years the distance between the lines increases
what shows growing of the "being assimilated" in emigration,
i.e. increasing in the "Jewish emigration" the people of mixed
origin and the family members-non-Jews.
1. "Jewish emigration" and emigration of the Jews from Ukraine
(1989 - 1999)
of the emigrants is tens and hundreds thousands having two picks during
this period. The first pick takes place in 1990-1991 when the last limitations
for leaving Ukraine were canceled, the second one - in 1994 when there
was the economical crisis and hiper-inflation reached the top. The stability
of the "Jewish emigration" level from Ukraine in the following
years proves that the economical crisis goes on and is not temporary event.
The decreasing of the number of the Jews in the stable "Jewish emigration"
after 1994 proves first of all that the more and more assimilated families
are being involved in the emigration.
The pick of the "Jewish emigration" in 1990-1991 illustrates
the "dam effect" when the accumulated during the Soviet time
desire to emigrate that couldn't be satisfied due to the strict position
of the Soviet government after the Moscow Olympic Games in Summer 1980
forced its way through with the big flow of emigrants in the end of the
80ies. The flow decreased by 1993 in the natural way and left the defined
for Ukraine for the following years the volume of annual emigration in
the outside CIS countries on the level 42-43 thousands emigrants a year.
at the age allocation we can see that it's the young and middle-aged people
who emigrate first of all among both the Jews and other ethnical groups.
It results that it's the declining years old people who prevail in the
age structure of the Jews staying in Ukraine.
16. Age structure of the Jewish emigration from the CIS and Ukraine to
The emigration to Israel in the described period of time went unevenly
in time and in geography. We can say that beginning from 1989 the emigration
developed in the "fan" way; beginning from the Western Regions
of Ukraine and then via the center of the country moved to the South-East.
The data of the Ministry of Absorption of Israel given in the appendix
5 don't allow to get the exact picture in the regions of Ukraine due to
some reasons but point on the features of the geographical allocation
of this emigration.
the data about the "Jewish emigration" from Ukraine from the
different sources particularly, from the Ministry of Absorption of Israel
and the State Committee of Statistics of Ukraine we can calculate the
level of the illegal part in the "Jewish emigration " to Israel.
17. Illegal "Jewish emigration" to Israel (1989 - 1999)
of the illegal emigration of the "Jewish tourists", on our opinion
are the following:
- comparative simplicity of the naturalization in Israel for persons of
Jewish origin, covered with the "Return Low";
- family problems, when the staying part of a family prevents the one
who wants to go due to material or personal reasons;
- bureaucracy in the making documents process in Ukraine;
- the fear before possible refuse because of the past activity in the
"closed" ("secret") establishments;
- probably, the fear before criminal persecution.
last years the government of Israel in different ways has embarrassed
naturalization in Israel for the "Jewish tourists" what resulted
some decreasing of the illegal immigration in 1998-1999.
Israel the Jews of Ukraine emigrate also to the USA and Germany. The agreement
of 1991 between the federal chancellor G. Kol and the president of the
Central Council of the Jews Galinsky has become the legal basement for
leaving of the Jews for Germany. It granted to the Jews of the past USSR
the possibility for emigration. Since this agreement needed to be given
the legal basement in the German lows and the Jewish emigrants couldn't
be covered neither by the Low about Foreigners nor by the Low about giving
political refuge, so this category of emigrants was described as refugees.
This category of the "Jews-refugees" got a legal right to settle
in Germany immediately for the permanent living. They receive German citizenship
after 8 years living in the country.
It was suggested that the emigrants' flow would fulfill two following
tasks: firstly, the Jewish communities of Germany will increase, secondly,
Germany will make good gesture towards the ethnical and religious community,
which suffered of discrimination in the USSR. Naturally, third task have
been taken in account as the redemption by Germany of the guilty before
the Jews for their persecution by Nazis.
The agreement didn't fix how many thousands of the Jews-"refugees"
Germany would accept annually. Nevertheless, for the last years have been
showing that Germany accept annually around 15-16 thousands of the Jews
from the post-USSR countries. Around 7-8 thousands Jews annually arrive
in Germany from Ukraine. Therefore, for 1991-1999 around 60 thousands
of Jews have left Ukraine for Germany.
To analyze the "Jewish emigration" of the past decade to the
main countries let's gather the data from different sources in the one
18. The "Jewish emigration" from Ukraine (1989 - 1999)
with the results of the investigation of the JNC (see above) shows that
desires of the Jews of Ukraine where to emigrate fulfill partly, i.e.
those who hadn't been able to emigrate to the USA, Canada or Australia,
emigrated to Israel because this way turned out to be much simpler. The
desires and the real emigration to Germany and Russia are coincident.
How it was noticed before, the Jewish emigration from Ukraine to Israel
gives about one third of the correspondent emigration from the CIS and
Baltic countries, but if we look at the correspondent data for the USA
and Germany we'll see that the Jewish emigration from Ukraine to the USA
is about 40% of the total emigration from the past-USSR countries and
to Germany is about 50%.
Due to lack of the data we can't estimate exactly the number of the illegal
"Jewish emigrants" from Ukraine to the USA and, especially,
to Germany but we have to notice that in the end of the 80ies - beginning
of the 90ies when the correspondent statistics was absent thousands people
from Ukraine emigrated to Germany. Part of them having left Ukraine with
the "Israeli visas" in the middle of the way turned to the other
countries, mainly to the USA and Germany.
The analysis of the table 18 and the picture 1 give us the following conclusions.
After the pick of the Jewish emigration in 1994 due to worsening the social-economical
crisis in Ukraine (Summer, 1993) for the following 5 years we can observe
the line decreasing of the annual volumes of emigration. It means that
the resulting action of all external factors influencing emigration has
stabilized. Only one internal factor has begun to influent the "capacity
of the flow" and it is the number of the "Jewish population",
i.e. the number of the "enlarged population".
Using different ways of calculations we can define that the number of
the "Jewish population" was around between 603 and 636 thousands
people in 1996 and around 523 thousands people in the beginning of 1999.
compile all our data about the Jewish emigration from Ukraine from the
end of XIX cent. in one table.
19. The Jewish emigration from Ukraine (1881 - 1999) (thousands people)
and the attempt of forecast
wave of emigration takes away from Ukraine the considerable part of its
Jewish population. For 120 years more than 1.5 millions Jews and their
families members have left Ukraine. From the one of most populated by
the Jews country Ukraine has been becoming the country with not large
Jewish population. With the end of XX century the whole era in the history
of the Jews of Ukraine has been finishing. In the new millennium in contrast
to the previous one the presence of the Jews will not almost any influence
on the life of Ukraine.
The last wave of emigration (1989 - 2000) with continues even today has
taken away about a half of the "enlarged population" of the
Jews of Ukraine, whose kernel was counted as 487 thousands people in 1989.
Decreasing the portion of the Jews in repatriation stopped on the level
30-31%, in the whole emigration - 34-35% and obviously will not decrease
High rate of the emigration have resulted the considerable changes of
the age structure of the Jewish population and also the fact that in small
towns and villages of Ukraine where about a half of the Jewish population
lived before there will not stay any Jew in the period of one generation.
After 5-7 years in case of relative stabilization of the economical situation
we will see decreasing the annual average emigration level from 30-35
thousands to 15-20 thousands.
Therefore in the following decade about 250 thousands people from the
Jewish "enlarged population", i.e. about a half of her current
number, will leave Ukraine.
Taking in account that for the previous decade Ukraine has lost about
a half of the number of the "enlarged population" of the end
of the 80ies (there were about 1.2 - 1.3 millions in 1989) we can introduce
the term "half-exodus" as the time period when the "enlarged
population" of Ukraine decreased in two time. Following this the
"half-exodus" period in the end of XX - beginning of XXI centuries
is about 10 years.
The immigration including the re-emigration of the Jews and their families'
members to Ukraine goes on the level 5-6% of emigration and in the nearest
years on our opinion will stay on the same level or will increase non
In case of the non considerable improving of the social-economical situation
in Ukraine not sooner than after 25 - 30 years we'll be able to observe
the situation when the annual flows of emigrants and re-emigrants will
become equal and the number of the "enlarged population" will
become stable on the level of 120 - 130 thousands people with the "population
kernel" will be around 35-40 thousands. The re-emigrants will form
the considerable part of the "enlarged population" (30-40%).